- 1100-1135 Henry I, king of England.
- 1108-1137 Louis VI the Fat, king of France.
- 1135-1154 Stephen, king of England.
- 1135-1189 Henry II, king of England.
- 1137-1180 Louis VII, king of France.
- 1168-1253 Robert Grossteste. He founded a school of Franciscan philosophy based upon the close observation of natural phenomena. He led the way in applying mathematics to "scientific" observation, and in developing the technique of using experiments to disprove false hypotheses.
- 1180-1223 Philip IIAugustus, king of France.
- 1189-1199 Richard I Lion-Heart, king of England.
- 1199-1216 John Lackland or Soft Sword, king of England.
- 1200 Innocent III grants a charter to the University of Paris.
- 1204 Having undertaken the Fourth Crusade with inadequate revenues to pay for their passage and supplies, the crusaders first pay off their Venetian shippers by capturing the Croatian town of Zara, which had become a threat to Venice's control of the Adriatic Sea. Still without sufficient funds, the crusaders were persuaded to assist a claimant to gain the throne of the Byzantine empire. In an amphibious assault, the crusaders gained entry into the city and were surprised to find themselves in unopposed possession. Constantinople had beaten off many attacks since it was founded in 330 AD, but this was the first time it had been taken. The next time would be the Ottoman Turk attack in 1453.
Medieval History Page 7